Fluoride 1974; 7(2): 93-105.
Effects of fluoride on the kidney: A review.
SUMMARY: A review of the available literature on the effects of fluoride on kidneys indicates that fluoride is removed from the kidneys by glomerular filtration. Approximately 1/3 of ingested fluoride appears in the urine within 24 h. In experimental animals massive doses of fluoride induce tubular necrosis, especially in the convoluted portions of the tubules, and inflammation of glomeruli. These changes are associated with the clinical findings of impaired kidneys function such as polyuria, polydipsia, increased nonprotein nitrogen, etc. In humans, in acute fluoride intoxication, the kidneys are affected adversely. Athough data on the long-term effect of repeated small doses of fluoride are sparse, in areas of endemic fluorosis functional disturbances have been reported. Whereas epidemiological statistics in the USA have not revealed any effect of fluoridated water (1 ppm) on the kidneys, in persons with kidney disease increased retention of fluoride in the blood has been recorded. Prolonged anesthesia with methoxyflurance can lead to renal failure and death. (Abstract from TOXNET)
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