Fluoride 2000 May 33(2): 74-78.
Effect of High-Fluoride Water on Intelligence in Children
Lu Y, Sun ZR, Wu LN, Wang X, Lu W, Liu SS
Department of Environmental Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China. firstname.lastname@example.org
The Intelligence Quotient (IQ) was measured in 118 children, aged 10-12 years, who were life-long residents in two villages of similar population size and social, educational and economic background but differing in the level of fluoride in drinking water. The children in the high-fluoride area (drinking water fluoride 3.15 + 0.61 mg/L [ppm]) (mean + S.D.) had higher urinary fluoride levels (4.99 + 2.57 mg/L) than the children in the low-fluoride area (drinking water fluoride 0.37 + 0.04 mg/L) (urinary fluoride 1.43 + 0.64 mg/L). The IQ of the 60 children in the high-fluoride area was significantly lower, mean 92.27 + 20.45, than that of the 58 children in the low-fluoride area, mean 103.05 + 13.86. More children in the high-fluoride area, 21.6%, were in the retardation (<70) or borderline (70-79) categories of IQ than children in the low fluoride area, 3.4%. An inverse relationship was also present between IQ and the urinary fluoride level. Exposure of children to high levels of fluoride may therefore carry the risk of impaired development of intelligence.
Return to Fluoride Bibliography